Alkylresorcinols are phenolic
lipids present in
the outer parts of rye and wheat kernels (Ross et al. 2001). They are considered to be inhibitory components
responsible for lowering feed intake, feed conversion efficacy and growth rate in animals
fed rye diets. As a result of this belief, selection programmes for rye cultivars with low
levels of alkylresorcinols were started in an effort to increase the proportion of rye in
animal feed. Interest in alkylresorcinols, however, continued and a wide range of
activities, including antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antitumour and antioxidant effects,
were attributed to them. (Ross et al. 2001, Kamal-Eldin et al. 2000,
Kozubek and Tyman 1999).
Alkylresorcinols have been found to be absorbed
ry rats (Ross et al. 2003), pigs (Ross et al. 2001) and humans
(Linko et al. 2002; Ross et al. 2003; Linko et al. 2005), but little
is known about their metabolism or the resulting metabolites.
Deconjugated human urine after the wheat-bran based meal was shown
to contain two alkylresorcinol metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic
acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid, as well as
smaller amounts of unchanged alkylresorcinols, confirming the
hypothesis that alkylresorcinols are metabolised in humans via
b-oxidation of their
alkyl chains (Ross et al. 2004).
are present in high amounts in whole grain wheat and rye but not in
appreciable amounts in other foods, Ross and co-workers (Chen et al.
2004; Ross et al. 2005) have proposed that alkylresorcinols could
be candidates as biomarkers of wholegrain intake from wheat and rye.
According to their estimation of the intake of alkylresorcinols in
Scandinavian and the UK using food supply data, the UK had the
lowest (11.9 mg/day), Sweden (17.5 mg/day) and Norway (18.5 mg/day)
had moderate, while Finland (39.8 mg/day) and Denmark (37.1 mg/day)
had the highest intake of alkylresorcinols (Ross et al. 2005).
According to this study 95 % of all Swedes consumed some
alkylresorcinols, as compared with 50 % of British people surveyed.
^ top ^