Alkylresorcinol
Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids that are present in high amounts in whole grain rye and wheat but not in appreciable  amounts in other foods.

Antioxidant
Antioxidant is a substance that delays the onset or slows down the rate of oxidation of oxidizable substrates. Whole grains contain a number of antioxidants such as vitamins (e.g. vitamins E and b-caroten) and trace elements essential for enzymes performing antioxidant functions (e.g. Se, Mn, Mg), and nonnutrients such as phenolic compounds (e.g. lignans) and antinutrients (e.g. phytic acid).

Arabinoxylan
Arabinoxylan, a polysaccharide composed of xylose and arabinose, is part of the soluble and insoluble fibre in cereals. Rye is a good source of arabinoxylan (pentosan).

Ash content
Ash content is the amount of inorganic minerals in food samples. The ash content of flour indicates how much of the outer layers of the kernel have been ground to flour. In white wheat flour (ash content 0.7% or less) about 30% of the outer layers of the kernel have been removed. The ash content of whole meal rye flour is about 2%.

Biomarker
It is not always possible to establish a quantitative measurement of the benefits or risks between diet and health and disease. Biomarker in the diet is a compound that can be measured, and its presence is related to the potential benefits or risks to health.

b-glucan
b-glucan is a component of soluble fibre in cereals. Oat is very rich in b-glucan.

Dietary fibre
The plant polysaccharides and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes of man.

Dietary Fibre Complex
In addition to indigestible polysaccharides and lignin, minor components, such as phenolic compounds (e.g. lignans) or strongly associated cell wall proteins also may be included in the dietary fibre concept. The presence of such minor constituents, as well as structural variations in the dietary fibre components, can be of great importance for the functional and/or physiological properties of dietary fibre.

Epidemiological Study
Epidemiological study seeks the potential associations between aspects of health (such as cancer, heart disease, etc.) and diet, lifestyle, habits or other factors within populations. Epidemiological studies may suggest relationships between two factors, but do not provide the basis for conclusions about cause and effect. Possible associations inferred from epidemiological research can turn out to be coincidental.

Extraction rate
Flours are characterised by the rate of extraction. Extraction rate is the proportion of flour, derived by milling, from a known quantity of grain. Extraction rate is used to define various types of flours. White wheat flour has an extraction rate of 75 - 78% or less. Whole grain flour has an extraction rate of 100%.

Gluten
Gluten is the water-insoluble part of cereal proteins. Gluten is especially important in wheat baking processes because of its effect in the structure of wheat breads.

Glycemic index
The glycemic index is a method of classifying the blood glucose raising potential of foods in which the blood glucose responses of test foods are expressed as a percent of the response to the same amount of carbohydrate from a standard food, white bread.

Ileostomy subject
The large intestine and a part of the small intestine of the subject are removed and a loop or end of the small intestine is brought out through an opening in the abdominal wall of the subject for "defecation".

Lignan
Lignans are diphenolic phytoestrogens, which in the colon are converted to estrogen-like mammalian compounds.

Phenolic compound
Phenolic compounds are chemical compounds that contain carbo-aromatic rings.

Phytoestrogen
Phytoestrogens are steroid-like plant compounds consisting mainly of two groups of biphenols, isoflavones and lignans, which after consumption by animals or man have been shown to have oestrogenic activities.

Prebiotic
A prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health.

Probiotic
A probiotic is a live microbial feed supplement, which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance.

Prospective study
Epidemiological research that follows a group of people over a period of time to observe the potential effects of diet, behaviour and other factors on health or the incidence of disease. In general, this is considered a more valid research design than a retrospective research.

Rheology
Rheology encompasses the mechanical properties of solids, semisolids and liquids. In rheological experiment, one imposes a force and measures the deformation of sample. Under the same force, softer material will be deformed more than harder one.

Synbiotic
A mixture of probiotics and prebiotics that beneficially affects the host by improving the survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal tract, by selectively stimulating the growth and/or by activating the metabolism of one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria, and thus improving host welfare.

Western diseases
Breast cancer, prostate cancer and endometrial cancer belong to the group of hormone-dependent cancers which in addition to colon cancer, coronary heart disease and some other diseases are called Western diseases because their incidence and mortality are high in the Western world compared to countries in Asia and South and East Europe. An increased risk for Western diseases has been found to be related to a change towards a diet high in fat and low in fibre.

Whole Grain Product
The whole grain has been used for making the product.


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