trace elements essential for enzymes performing antioxidant functions (e.g. Se, Mn, Mg),
and nonnutrients such as phenolic compounds (e.g. lignans) and antinutrients (e.g. phytic
Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids that are present in high
amounts in whole grain rye and wheat but not in appreciable
amounts in other foods.
Antioxidant is a substance that delays the onset or slows down the rate of oxidation of
oxidizable substrates. Whole grains contain a number of antioxidants such as vitamins
(e.g. vitamins E and
Arabinoxylan, a polysaccharide composed of xylose and arabinose, is part of the soluble
and insoluble fibre in cereals. Rye is a good source of arabinoxylan (pentosan).
Ash content is the amount of inorganic minerals in food samples. The ash content of flour
indicates how much of the outer layers of the kernel have been ground to flour. In white
wheat flour (ash content 0.7% or less) about 30% of the outer layers of the kernel have
been removed. The ash content of whole meal rye flour is about 2%.
It is not always possible to establish a quantitative measurement of the benefits or risks
between diet and health and disease. Biomarker in the diet is a compound that can be
measured, and its presence is related to the potential benefits or risks to health.
b-glucan is a component of soluble
fibre in cereals. Oat is very rich in b-glucan.
The plant polysaccharides and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis by the digestive
enzymes of man.
Dietary Fibre Complex
In addition to indigestible polysaccharides and lignin, minor components, such as phenolic
compounds (e.g. lignans) or strongly associated cell wall proteins also may be included in
the dietary fibre concept. The presence of such minor constituents, as well as structural
variations in the dietary fibre components, can be of great importance for the functional
and/or physiological properties of dietary fibre.
Epidemiological study seeks the potential associations between aspects of health (such as
cancer, heart disease, etc.) and diet, lifestyle, habits or other factors within
populations. Epidemiological studies may suggest relationships between two factors, but do
not provide the basis for conclusions about cause and effect. Possible associations
inferred from epidemiological research can turn out to be coincidental.
Flours are characterised by the rate of extraction. Extraction rate is the proportion of
flour, derived by milling, from a known quantity of grain. Extraction rate is used to
define various types of flours. White wheat flour has an extraction rate of 75 - 78% or
less. Whole grain flour has an extraction rate of 100%.
Gluten is the water-insoluble part of cereal proteins. Gluten is especially important in
wheat baking processes because of its effect in the structure of wheat breads.
The glycemic index is a method of classifying the blood glucose raising potential of foods
in which the blood glucose responses of test foods are expressed as a percent of the
response to the same amount of carbohydrate from a standard food, white bread.
The large intestine and a part of the small intestine of the subject are removed and a
loop or end of the small intestine is brought out through an opening in the abdominal wall
of the subject for "defecation".
Lignans are diphenolic phytoestrogens, which in the colon are converted to estrogen-like
Phenolic compounds are chemical compounds that contain carbo-aromatic rings.
Phytoestrogens are steroid-like plant compounds consisting mainly of two groups of
biphenols, isoflavones and lignans, which after consumption by animals or man have been
shown to have oestrogenic activities.
A prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by
selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria
in the colon, and thus improves host health.
A probiotic is a live microbial feed supplement, which beneficially affects the host
animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance.
Epidemiological research that follows a group of people over a period of time to observe
the potential effects of diet, behaviour and other factors on health or the incidence of
disease. In general, this is considered a more valid research design than a retrospective
Rheology encompasses the mechanical properties of solids, semisolids and liquids. In
rheological experiment, one imposes a force and measures the deformation of sample. Under
the same force, softer material will be deformed more than harder one.
A mixture of probiotics and prebiotics that beneficially affects the host by improving the
survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal
tract, by selectively stimulating the growth and/or by activating the metabolism of one or
a limited number of health-promoting bacteria, and thus improving host welfare.
Breast cancer, prostate cancer and endometrial cancer belong to the group of
hormone-dependent cancers which in addition to colon cancer, coronary heart disease and
some other diseases are called Western diseases because their incidence and mortality are
high in the Western world compared to countries in Asia and South and East Europe. An
increased risk for Western diseases has been found to be related to a change towards a
diet high in fat and low in fibre.
Whole Grain Product
The whole grain has been used for making the product.
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